Nelson Bustamante: Penetration Value of Bitumen -Determination for Road Construction

πŸ•‘ Reading time: 1 minute The penetration value test on bitumen serves as a crucial measure of its hardness and consistency. Specifically, a bitumen grade like 80/100 signifies that its penetration value falls within the range of 80 to 100. This value is determined by the vertical distance penetrated by a standard needle into the … Read more

Nelson Bustamante: Fibre Reinforced Polymer (FRP) in Construction, Types and Uses

πŸ•‘ Reading time: 1 minute Fibre Reinforced Polymer (FRP) composite is a type of material wherein a polymer is reinforced with fibers, falling into the category of composite materials. These materials are formed by dispersing particles of one or more materials within another material, creating a continuous network around them. Distinguishing itself from traditional construction … Read more


πŸ•‘ Reading time: 1 minute Energy audits play a crucial role in identifying opportunities for energy efficiency improvements in buildings. The audit process is comprehensive and iterative, typically involving several tasks tailored to the specific type and function of the building being assessed. While the sequence of tasks may vary, a general procedure can be … Read more

Nelson Bustamante: COMMON ENERGY CONSERVATION MEASURES – The Constructor

πŸ•‘ Reading time: 1 minute In this subsection, various energy conservation measures (ECMs) commonly recommended for commercial and industrial facilities are discussed. It should be noted that the list of ECMs presented below is not exhaustive or comprehensive. Rather, it is provided to indicate options that energy auditors can consider during energy analyses. However, it … Read more

Nelson Bustamante: Circular Prestressing – The Constructor

πŸ•‘ Reading time: 1 minute Circular prestressing refers to the technique employed in reinforcing circular structures such as pipes and tanks by winding prestressing wires in circular patterns. This method stands in contrast to linear prestressing, which encompasses all other forms of prestressing where cables are straight or curved but not wound in circles around … Read more

Nelson Bustamante: Design of Steel Tanks – The Constructor

πŸ•‘ Reading time: 1 minute Design of Steel Tanks Steel tanks are defined as vessels made of steel plates, utilized for storing various liquids such as water, petroleum, diesel, and kerosene oil. These tanks may be either placed on the ground or elevated on towers. When situated on the ground, they are supported either by … Read more

Nelson Bustamante: Cement Types and Characteristics of Cements

πŸ•‘ Reading time: 1 minute Types of Portland Cement Different types of Portland cement are manufactured to meet specific purposes, as outlined by the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) Designation C150, which specifies eight types: Type Name Type I Normal Type IA Normal, air entraining Type II Moderate sulfate resistance Type IIA Moderate … Read more

Nelson Bustamante: What is Intelligent Transportation System? Its Working and Advantages

πŸ•‘ Reading time: 1 minute Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITS) represent the fusion of sensing, analysis, control, and communication technologies within ground transportation systems, aimed at augmenting safety, mobility, and efficiency. This multifaceted approach encompasses various applications designed to process and disseminate information, thereby alleviating congestion, refining traffic management, mitigating environmental impact, and enhancing transportation advantages … Read more

Nelson Bustamante: 15 Factors Affecting Durability of Concrete

πŸ•‘ Reading time: 1 minute A durable concrete is defined as one that performs satisfactorily under the expected exposure conditions for the specified lifespan of the structure. Understanding the myriad factors influencing concrete durability is essential for ensuring the long-term integrity of constructions. Below, we delve into the comprehensive array of factors that impact the … Read more

Nelson Bustamante: Compaction of Soil – Test Methods and Effect on Properties of Soil

πŸ•‘ Reading time: 1 minute What isΒ Compaction of Soil? Soil compaction is a fundamental engineering process that involves the mechanical compression of soil particles, reducing the void spaces between them while simultaneously increasing the mass density. This crucial procedure is indispensable for various construction projects, such as earth dams, canal embankments, highways, runways, and many … Read more